The following is an update about the new Scott’s Bonus S Weed and Feed. As early as March, Tim Ray, Ron Strahan at LSU, and several other counterparts along the coast had shared their concerns that the metsulfuron containing product was causing injury to centipedegrass. Scott’s has officially recalled this product and will now replace it with the old formulation containing atrazine. Official website announcement.
Coming to Biloxi October 13-15, 2015 Continue reading “”
Thanks to numerous sponsors, the Mississippi Turfgrass Association, and the MSU Extension Service, our MS Turfgrass Magazine has finally been published. There’s a lot of work involved in publishing a magazine – more than I had thought. But with continued support from current and future advertisers, this magazine can enhance the turfgrass industry in our state and beyond.
I am often asked to consult at low maintenance, “mom and pop” style golf courses. I’m asked even more often to make a plan or publication for the same style courses. I’m working on that. It’s not easy. For one, every course is different. And its especially challenging if there’s not a person to make agronomic decisions on the staff. Not a lie: I get more requests from board members, county supervisors, and owners than I do superintendents. That’s partly because most of the courses don’t hire supers, which is another topic entirely.
Here’s a letter I wrote for a low budget course this morning. I thought I’d share it and see what kind of reactions it gets. It’s not perfect. It’s far from complete or comprehensive. It’s for one golf course, with a very individual (although not unique) set of problems, if that makes sense.
Excuse the absence of pictures, our blog server is being stubborn this morning. Now I’m going to spray some herbicides. -Jay
To whom it may concern:
I have twice visited _____ Country Club (once in early March and again on June 27th). As the state Turfgrass Specialist, I often visit private and municipal golf facilities such as this one. These courses play an important, and often overlooked, role for the game of golf in Mississippi. Most importantly, they serve to introduce our youth to the game of golf. It is therefore an integral part of my program to help these courses maximize their potential.
That being said, it is not unusual to see these facilities struggle to meet the expectations of today’s golfers. I think most of us would agree that _____ CC has great potential but can certainly improve. This is why I write this letter.
I have spoken with Mr. _____, Superintendent and caretaker of the facility. I understand his unmet needs and concerns. What follows is my basic advice for improving your course. The basics are largely in place. With the exception of a few pieces of equipment as well as a budget for pesticides and fertilizers, Mr. _____ has most of what he needs to perform these tasks.
Greens are thatchy, soft, and diseased. How do we correct this? I propose three options:
1) Renovate greens complexes and remove built up organic matter. Follow that with sprigging or by allowing bermudagrass to come back from below ground roots. It is my opinion that you do not need to change bermudagrass cultivars. I believe there are more demanding issues at hand than the grass type on the greens.
2) My preferred option, and the one that requires the fewest inputs for return. Rent or buy a core aerifier. Pulling 1/2 to 3/4 inch cores and removing them will allow you to remove approximately 5 to 10% of the existing organic matter per pass on the closest spacings. You would follow that up with a generous top dressing of sand in order to fill those holes. It is necessary to remove the excess cores rather than drag them back in. This will serve to dilute the thatch which is harboring disease and making the greens so soft that they can’t be mown without tracking when slightly wet.
3) My final option would be perhaps less effective but could be done with existing equipment. That is, aggressively verticut the greens on a weekly basis. Verticutting needs to be done regardless of whether you adopt the previously suggested opitons, but this will only give temporary relief. Ultimately, core aerification or frequent greens renovation (approximately every 7 to 10 years) are the only options for dramatic improvement.
There is a great deal of crabgrass and other annual weed species throughout the property. Preemergence herbicides are part of the solution. Mr. _____ is well aware that postemergence control of crabgrass is ineffective and somewhat expensive, especially considering time and equipment hours. To better control crabgrass and other troublesome turf weeds, we ultimately need to apply a preemergence herbicide in the spring (approximately March 15) and fall (approximately September 15). Options are included below.
Commonly applied preemergence herbicides. WSSA and HRAC classification systems are provided to help herbicide applicators alternate modes of action in order to prevent herbicide resistance.
|Timing||Mode-of-Action||WSSA Group||HRAC Group||Common Name||Trade Name|
|Pre||Lipid biosynthesis inhibition||8||N||bensulide||Bensumec|
|Pre||Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibition||14||E||oxadiazon||Ronstar|
|Pre/Post||Photosystem II inhibition||5||C1||amicarbazone||Xonerate|
|Pre/Post||Photosystem II inhibition||5||C1||atrazine||Aatrex|
|Pre/Post||Photosystem II inhibition||5||C1||metribuzin||Sencor|
|Pre/Post||Photosystem II inhibition||5||C1||simazine||Princep|
|Pre/Post||Cellulose synthesis inhibition||29||L||indaziflam||Specticle|
|Pre/Post||Lipid biosynthesis inhibition||16||N||ethofumesate||Prograss|
Control may be limited due to herbicide resistance. The most common herbicide resistance in Mississippi turf is that of Poa annua to photosystem II inhibiting herbicides. Therefore, rotation of modes of action, as well as follow up applications to ensure complete control are recommended.
For simplicity, I would suggest an application of pendimethalin or prodiamine in September of 2014. An application of simazine in mid-January 2015 (can be mixed with glyphosate if bermudagrass is dormant). And an application of one of the following in early to mid-March of 2015: dithiopyr, metolachlor, pendimethalin, or prodiamine. I promote rotating chemistries according to the included bulletin in order to prevent herbicide resistance.
It should be noted that label recommendations should be followed, especially due to the potential for herbicide injury. Always read and follow the label.
Postemergence treatments for crabgrass. Mr. _____ is currently using MSMA, which will no longer be a legal option in the next few years once pulled by the EPA. It has never been a great option due to lack of effectiveness, and due to bermudagrass injury, but it is cheap. The new standard is quinclorac applied with a methylated seed oil. Multiple applications are required after crabgrass reaches 1 tiller. Therefore, this application relies heavily upon proper scouting and timing of herbicide application. Apply as roughly a late-April to mid-May application for best control. This product mixed with 2,4-D will also control a large variety of broadleaf weeds. It will not control our most noxious broadleaf weed, Virginia buttonweed.
The best option for VBW is a product containing the active ingredient fluroxypyr (commercial brands include Escalade II and many others). It is best applied while Virginia buttonweed is young and supple; however, follow up applications may be needed in heavily infested areas.
Finally, a nutrient management plan should be implemented on the course. Using fewer inputs is ultimately our goal, and to do this, we need to provide proper nutrients to promote soil and plant health. Primarily, Nitrogen is the most limiting element required for vigorous plant growth. It is always recommended that one apply nutrients and lime according to soil test recommendations, but in general, 4 to 6 pounds of N are required per year for sustained hybrid bermudagrass growth on golf course fairways. This should not all be applied at once. Rather, it can be split into monthly or bi-weekly (every two weeks) applications on fairways as a granular application.
Bermudagrass putting greens rarely receive such high levels of Nitrogen as those listed previously for fairway heights of cut. I suggest 2 to 3 lbs of N / 1000 sq ft / year. But it should be applied as weekly applications. So roughly 1/4 lb of N / 1000 sq ft on a weekly basis is plenty. In fact, a lot of superintendents are as low as 1/10 lb of N / 1000 / week. This is often applied as a liquid application. For low budge courses, I suggest sticking with a granular applications applied evenly at very low rates going multiple directions on the green. It is important (although not required) that applications be timed to coincide with other cultural practices. For instance, applying after an aggressive verticutting, or after core aerification, can be beneficial.
Nitrogen source is not terribly critical for most low budget golf courses. What is critical is that the product is applied evenly and is watered in lightly so as to settle prills into the turf canopy and so as to reduce volatilization and loss of nitrogen (this is especially a concern when using products containing the N source of urea). N loss from urea may be excessive during peak temperature conditions if not watered in properly. This does not apply to slow release sources of N. Coated prills, whether with polymer or sulfur, reduce loss via volatilization. Additionally, slow release XCU’s (long chain ureas) and Urea formaldehyde, also reduce N loss via volatilization.
Fertilizers are not 100% nitrogen. When we make a nitrogen recommendation, we are referencing pure nitrogen / unit area / time. A bag of urea (46-0-0) is 46% nitrogen. A simple conversion, regardless of analysis, is to divide 100% by % nitrogen, in this case 46%. Thus 2.2 lbs of the product is equivalent to 1 lb of nitrogen. An example: 18-24-6 is a common starter fertilizer for spring green up. It contains 18% N, 24% P, and 6% K. Divide 100% by 18%, and that’s equal to 5.6. Thus it takes 5.6 lbs of the product to equal 1 lb of N.
Plan to attend MSU Turfgrass Field Day on August 26th, 2014 in Starkville, MS
Thanks, and feel free to contact me should more information be needed.
The most prominent turf species of Mississippi – bahia, bermuda, centipede, fescue, St. Augustine, and Zoysia – were all affected by the cold winter temperatures.
There is winter damage at all of these locations. Physical symptoms of winter damage are sometimes difficult to distinguish from herbicide injury or disease. Therefore, it is important that turf managers and clients or club members look for patterns as a way of accessing injury and potential recuperative ability.
1) Cold damage manifests itself differently depending upon slope and direction, as well as shade. South facing slopes generally have regenerated better due to warmer soil temperatures; whereas, north facing slopes or shaded areas that receive less solar irradiation fared much worse.
2) Mowing height influences spring green color. Lower heights of cut generally green-up earlier. Higher heights of cut are dormant longer. This may be due to the amount of dead thatch and self-shading at a taller height. Mowing height may also influence micro-environments around the grass’s growing points.
3) Fall fertility and plant health does affect winter kill, but the pattern is not always clear. Many well maintained turf areas were unfairly damaged by cold temperatures. This could be due to excessive top growth at the expense of roots – common for St. Augustine. In bermuda and zoysia, it may be due to the amount of moisture left in the plants as a result of prolonging dormancy with fall nitrogen applications. But again, this is not a clear pattern and needs to be investigated.
4) All of these observations are compounded by excessive moisture levels. Areas near the coast that received minimal freeze damage suffered a surprising level of turf loss due to standing water and prolonged soil saturation.
1) The most difficult advice to convey is to be patient. In all but the worst cases, grass will recover. Masking the effects of damage using pigments and a low rate of fertilizer will enhance aesthetics and give turfgrass managers time to evaluate recovery when temperatures become more adequate for turfgrass growth. It could be late May or even June in the northern most part of our state before we have day and night time temperatures adequate for bermudagrass growth.
2) Consider your options and ask a few important questions before sodding. Primarily, where’s the sod coming from, and did the sod farm experience loss of plant health due to winter conditions? It stands to reason that if your grass got hammered, so did the sod producer’s. Does bringing in potentially weakened sod advance ones cause? In some cases, yes. Clients and club members often pressure turf managers into immediate resodding for playability issues. Cold damage manifests itself differently due to many different environmental reasons, so it may be that resodding those areas is a quicker way to recovery.
3) Let’s not forget that seeding is also an option. Golf and sports fields predominantly rely upon vegetatively propagated hybrid bermudagrass, but in some instances, seeded bermudagrass may be an acceptable means of masking and recovering winter damaged areas.
4) Not all species, nor varieties, are equally prone to winter injury. Zoysiagrass fared quite well at all sites I’ve visited, regardless of species or variety. On the other hand, St. Augustine was hammered. There are three standard St. Augustine varieties marketed in Mississippi. Floratam is one of the most common varieties along the coast, but it is the least cold tolerant. Palmetto and Raleigh are more common north of Interstate 10, but they were both hammered by our severe winter. Previous research has shown that temperatures below 15 degrees F significantly damage all commercially available St. Augustinegrass varieties.
Bermudagrass breeding efforts have advanced cold tolerance. Many selections made in cooler climates survive extreme freezing temperatures and should be considered as replacement varieties where appropriate. It should, however, be noted that mixing varieties may result in lack of uniformity, which can be an issue with some clientele.
The National Turfgrass Evaluation Program coordinates research across the nation. A bermudagrass variety trial planted in 2013 at Mississippi State has yielded interesting, albeit preliminary, data this year pertaining to winter recovery. Even though varieties show winter survival and early green up differences, all have survived. It should also be noted that these are first year trials. Experience has shown that fully grown-in grass behaves quite differently.
In summary: If possible, be patient. Masking weak areas with pigment until they recover is a good option. However, high traffic areas and locations with cooler soil temperatures may warrant re-planting once warmer weather arrives. A good rule-of-thumb may be that if you have 1 green leaf per square foot, you will likely see full recovery this season. But if you’re dealing with larger areas, re-establishing via sod, sprigs, plugs or seeds may be justified.
Turf Team contributors to this article: Jay McCurdy, Wayne Philly, Barry Stewart, Christian Baldwin
Other useful sources of information:
Golf Course Supers, Turf Professionals, Vendors, etc..
I’d like to call your attention to the upcoming April 15 sign up deadline for the Rounds 4 Research auction. This is a call to action.
How it works: Golf facilities can support the effort by donating rounds of golf for two or four or “stay and play” packages and other items that will be auctioned off online on www.biddingforgood.com to generate funds for turfgrass research. Rounds 4 Research is administered by the Environmental Institute for Golf and presented in partnership with the Toro Co. The EIFG is the philanthropic organization of the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America.
The sign up is simple and takes 10 minutes: http://www.rounds4research.com/donate-a-round/217-2/
Funding isn’t a pleasant issue in turfgrass research these days. There’s a lack of it from all angles – corporate, state, and federal. It is my understanding that the local chapter, e.g. LMGCSA or MAGCSA, would oversee funds and dictates where they go. We hope all that participate will see fit to invest in our MSU turf program.
An example project that R4R money might be used for: MSU Turf Team wants to secure $40,000 in matching funds over the next two years to demonstrate industry good will and support for a federal and state funded BMP project. This would go a long way towards supporting a graduate student and getting us started. There are numerous other projects we lack funding for in addition to this one.
If I, or any of my colleagues, can help persuade GM’s, boardmembers, or owners of the value of the R4R program, please let me know. Also, feel free to contact Ron Wright (GCSAA Southeaster Field Staff Representative) for further details and logistics.
As Lawn Care Operators (LCO’s) you’re managing numerous properties – each somewhat different. And as part of your state’s pesticide applicator regulations, you’re responsible for keeping up with a minimum amount of information concerning every application.
So take a few notes about what you should be noting! You can do this via smart phone app, or just create a paper trail for every account – as long as you can show it to the inspector and regulators. Read here for Mississippi’s Bureau of Plant Industries regulation of professional services.
Here’s the main ones I think are pertinent:
Yes, there’s an app for that. In fact, there are several. One of which is DoForms (there are several others). Most are an online database accessible via smart phone. You basically make a new form that asks you to fill in responses to different types of questions. Ideally, your applicator would fill in questions at each site.
Being a turfgrass extension specialist, I get calls and questions ranging from basic to bizarre – I got one the other day pertaining to growing grass on fish pond banks irrigated with salt water. But the one I get most often is this: “what should I spray on my lawn to prevent weeds.” There’s no simple answer, and the conversation always twists and turns depending upon the person’s agronomic background and whether they have a pesticide applicator’s license.
Before I make a recommendation, I try to gather as much information as possible. What type grass do you have? What’s your location? Do you have an applicators license? What it comes down to is usually this: time and money. But that’s not a quick and easy answer like most folks expect.
Grow Grass First – I suspect that 90% of the homeowner issues I encounter aren’t going to be solved by applying something from a jug. Proper fertility is important, and so is proper grass selection. But if you’re trying to grow bermudagrass under a live oak, herbicides aren’t going to help. I recommend this publication for a starter guide to homeowners. For coaches and athletic field managers, I recommend managing sports fields in MS. Inevitably, I get asked to come and visit. If it’s an emergency, and you’re dying to know what disease you’ve got, you’d be best off sending some high quality images and a sample to Clarissa over in the diagnostics lab.
Timing – The issues surrounding spring preemergence are too numerous to mention. Careers have been built upon understanding the most minute detail of single herbicide chemistries. Ultimately, timing is the major obstacle. It’s important to understand that not all pre’s work the same way, and they generally have very limited postemergence activity. That’s to say, if crabgrass has already germinated, guess what, you’re not going to preemergently control it. For most of MS, it’s not too late to apply a pre. Crabgrass has barely started to break in Starkville, and even if it already has down on the coast, you’ll have germination for the rest of the spring. If you are getting out there late, choose a pre/post combination, such as Barricade (prodiamine) tank mixed with Drive (quinclorac), or choose a herbicide that has both pre and postemergence control, such as Dimension (dithiopyr) or Specticle (indazaflam).
Mode-of-Action – If you’re battling resistance, or just trying to prevent it, you ought to be rotating modes-of-action (MOA’s). All of us need to be proper stewards of the chemistries we’ve got. Be aware that herbicides have different MOA’s. That is, they kill weeds differently. Some inhibit photosynthesis (atrazine and simazine); others inhibit cellulose biosynthesis (Specticle); still, others inhibit mitosis (DNA herbicides like prodiamine and pendulum). Here’s a list of common MOA’s. Notice that some are solely preemergently active (Pre). Others are pre/post active. And others are only post. Always read the label when applying any type of pesticide.
Keep an eye out for future publications with more detail. And keep in mind that root pruning is a serious issue with almost all of the pre herbicides. Ronstar may be the safest to new roots of bermudagrass, but it’s expensive. If you suspect winter kill, you might want to avoid applying a pre to bermudagrass if you can keep from it. That said, you’ll have very few herbicides available for post control of problematic weeds like goose and crabgrass.
Formulation – If I were a homeowner and a DIY’er, I’d choose a granular weed and feed type application. It’s effective, as long as one gets good coverage, and it doesn’t require special spray equipment. DNA herbicides, such as prodiamine and pendimethalin, often come impregnated on both corn cob and/or fertilizer. I don’t typically recommend fertilizer prior to full green up, so buyer beware: fertilizer application isn’t needed until almost 100% green up. Look for the pre herbicide coated on an inert carrier like corn cob or fertilizer free granular.
There are numerous other variables, but these are the low hanging fruit.
Enjoy the warmer weather,
Christo Sullivan, Doug Martin, Jordan Billingsley
About – Yellow Woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta) is a medium-sized edible plant that thrives in lawns and woodlands across the United States and Canada. It can also be found in Europe, Africa, Asia, Japan and New Zealand. The flowers can be used to make yellow, orange, red and brown dyes. Another common name is “Oxalis”, which means “sour” due to its oxalic acid content. Oxalic acid can be toxic when consumed in large quantities because it inhibits the absorption of calcium. Yellow Woodsorrel is a cool season perennial in the Woodsorrel family (Oxalidacea), but may act as a summer annual in certain environments. It reproduces by seed and occasionally stems.
Identification – Yellow woodsorrel introduces itself from a taproot and forms small, erect, bushy plants up to 20 inches tall. The stems are slender, gray-green, pubescent, slightly ascending, and branched at the base. They will occasionally root at the nodes. The leaves of yellow woodsorrel are alternate with three heart-shaped leaflets. They are pale green, up to 4/5 inch across with long petioles. The flowers are yellow with five petals and are up to ½ inch across. It is often mat forming and more common in cools-season turf species, such as tall fescue. It can be very common in greenhouses and container nurseries because its seedpods can distribute seeds up to several feet.
Cultural– Hand-weeding is effective before seeds are formed. As always, the best weed control is a dense turf sward. Proper mowing, fertilizing and irrigation ensure vigorously growing turf.
Many pre and post-emergent herbicides are effective.
Pre-emergent herbicides include:
Post-emergent herbicides include:
And many 3-way mixtures sold at in lawn and garden sections (often labelled as Trimec Southern or for Broadleaf weed control).